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Literacy Framework 2023



Grandview Heights Schools Literacy Framework 2023

In Grandview Heights Schools, we believe a strong foundation in literacy is the cornerstone of learning. Using instructional strategies rooted in the Science of Reading and the principles of Structured Literacy, we develop students who are critical thinkers, problem solvers, and lifelong learners. Students are immersed in diverse, inclusive, and high-interest texts to provide authentic reading and writing opportunities. Instruction is guided by ongoing assessment and includes the essential components of oral language, phonological awareness, phonics, vocabulary, fluency, comprehension, and written expression.

Science of Reading

Structured Literacy

“The Science of Reading is a collection of scientifically-based research that has been conducted across the world over the last five decades. The Science of Reading has culminated in an abundance of evidence to inform how proficient reading and writing develop. By applying this research, we can effectively assess, teach, and improve student outcomes through prevention of and intervention for reading difficulties” (“What is the Science of Reading?”).

Structured Literacy emphasizes highly explicit, systematic, and data-based instruction. Feedback is specific and immediate. The components include foundational skills, higher-level literacy skills, and the components of writing. 


The Essential Components of Reading Instruction 


Although components are explicitly taught, skilled reading is the interdependence and

interconnectedness of all the components. 

Phonological Awareness

Phonological awareness is a foundational skill for learning to read and write.  It is the ability to identify and manipulate the spoken parts within words and sentences.


Phonics instruction teaches the relationships between the letters of written language and the sounds of spoken language. Children's reading development is dependent on their understanding of the alphabetic principle — the idea that letters and letter patterns represent the sounds of spoken language. "Decoding" is the act of sounding out words using phonics.


Fluency is defined as the ability to read with speed, accuracy, and proper expression. In order to understand what they read, children must be able to read fluently whether they are reading aloud or silently. When reading aloud, fluent readers read in phrases and add intonation appropriately. Their reading is smooth and has expression.


Vocabulary is the knowledge of words and word meanings across the modalities of listening, speaking, reading, and writing, including both academic and content-specific vocabulary. Vocabulary is the study of morphemes (prefixes, suffixes, roots, or bases) and the origins of words. Knowledge of a word not only implies the definition and spelling pattern but also how it fits into context.


Comprehension is the ultimate goal of reading. It begins with listening comprehension, which is the ability to understand spoken language. Reading comprehension is making sense of what we read. Comprehension depends on proficient word recognition, fluency, vocabulary, language ability, and background knowledge. 


The Essential Components of Writing Instruction



Writing conventions are the mechanics of writing (capitals, punctuation, and handwriting). When students can apply these mechanics with little effort, they are able to give their attention to the higher-order aspects of writing, like purpose, organization, and elaboration.


The purpose of writing is to inform, entertain, explain, persuade, argue, evaluate, or express ideas to an audience. The author’s purpose focuses on the message that the writer is trying to convey.


Organization is the ability to sequence and structure information in the order that suits the writer’s purpose. The sentences are logically connected with transition words and connect to the function of a particular piece of writing.  


Elaboration is the process of presenting and developing an idea with concrete examples or credible evidence. It adds more detail to better explain what has already been said. Elaboration gives writing power and voice.  


Learning to spell is built on the understanding that words are made up of separate speech sounds and that letters represent those sounds. Children then begin to notice patterns in words, the way letters are used, and recurring sequences of letters that form syllables, word endings, word roots, prefixes, and suffixes. Nearly 90 percent of English words can be spelled if a student knows the basic patterns, principles, and rules of spelling.